Wednesday, November 17, 2010
An important policy question about immigration is to what extent the children of immigrants assimilate. Not only does this tell us a lot about the forces at play, but because of the numbers second generation immigrant outcomes help determine our future.
... non-European immigrants in Europe are de-assimilating, with the second generation doing worse than the parents.
I focus on the share of immigrants that work compared to the natives, and only on non-European immigrants (we all know that European immigrants usually assimilate).
First the data confirms that both first generation and second generation immigrants in all 3 countries work much less than natives, both for men and women.
For women, the second generation is slowly assimilating. Whereas the first generation works 35% less than natives, the second generation works 27% less than natives, an improvement of 8 percentage points. (the figures are the non-weighted, arithmetic mean of the 3 countries, below I have put data in each one).
For men however the trend is the opposite. The second generation non-European immigrants are less likely to work than the previous generation! While the first generation work 10% less than natives, the second generation works 24% less, a deterioration of 14 percentage points...
Why is this happening? One reason may be that the first generation contains people who moved to Europe in order to work. Because they were selected on this trait, they have above average work ethic for their group. The second generation only has some of this advantage left...
Another, more troubling possibility is that the second generation are assimilating into a completely new culture. This is not the standard, successful western-European culture, but a new kind of mixed ghetto culture that emphasizes grievances, hostility to the host society, weak norms and a lack of a work ethic. aka dependency culture
What the trends suggests is happening that for men, the immigrant culture that has emerged in Europe is worse even than the culture they brought with them from Turkey, Algeria etc. Women instead are less oppressed, and work more than their mothers.
Comparing Second generation male immigrant relative employment rates with the first generation immigrants:
Comparing Second generation female immigrant relative employment rates with the first generation immigrants:
Employment rates (the figure in the parenthesis compared immigrants to the native born):
Native Men: 79.0%
First generation non-European immigrant Men: 67.8% (-14%)
Second generation non-European immigrant Men: 60.0% (-24%)
Native women: 66.5%
First generation non-European immigrant Women: 43.3% (-35%)
Second generation non-European immigrant Women: 53.5% (-20%)
I suspect that if Germany had some high IQ East Asian immigration, most of the problems would be ameliorated. East Asian immigrants are incredibly productive academically in various parts of the Anglosphere, like for instance Canada, Australia, the US, etc, in every single case being more academically productive than the native European population.
As I always say, it's not immigration per se that's the issue. It's what kind of immigrants you're ultimately attracting. Europe may have problems assimilating Muslim immigrants, but Australia has a far different problem, that of East Asian immigrants becoming vastly over-represented in the elite productive sectors of the society. See here.
From a comment on that blog